source USA CDC and will use Thailand as an example but check each country for specifics.
Check the vaccines and medicines list and visit your doctor (ideally, 4-6 weeks) before your trip to get vaccines or medicines you may need.
|Find Out Why||Protect Yourself|
You should be up to date on routine vaccinations while traveling to any destination. Some vaccines may also be required for travel.
|Routine vaccines||Make sure you are up-to-date on routine vaccines before every trip. These vaccines include measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine, varicella (chickenpox) vaccine, polio vaccine, and your yearly flu shot.|
Get travel vaccines and medicines because there is a risk of these diseases in the country you are visiting.
|Hepatitis A||CDC recommends this vaccine because you can get hepatitis A through contaminated food or water in Thailand, regardless of where you are eating or staying.
Traveling with ChildrenThis vaccine should not be given to children younger than 1 year.
|Typhoid||You can get typhoid through contaminated food or water in Thailand. CDC recommends this vaccine for most travelers, especially if you are staying with friends or relatives, visiting smaller cities or rural areas, or if you are an adventurous eater.
Traveling with ChildrenInjectable typhoid vaccine can be given to children 2 years old or older. Oral typhoid vaccine can be given to children 6 years old or older.
Ask your doctor what vaccines and medicines you need based on where you are going, how long you are staying, what you will be doing, and if you are traveling from a country other than the US.
|Hepatitis B||You can get hepatitis B through sexual contact, contaminated needles, and blood products, so CDC recommends this vaccine if you might have sex with a new partner, get a tattoo or piercing, or have any medical procedures.|
|Japanese Encephalitis||You may need this vaccine if your trip will last more than a month, depending on where you are going in Thailand and what time of year you are traveling. You should also consider this vaccine if you plan to visit rural areas in Thailand or will be spending a lot of time outdoors, even for trips shorter than a month. Your doctor can help you decide if this vaccine is right for you based on your travel plans. See more in-depth information on Japanese encephalitis in Thailand.
Extended Stay/Study AbroadIf you will be spending a long time in a risk area, you should get the Japanese encephalitis vaccine.
|Malaria||When traveling in Thailand, you should avoid mosquito bites to prevent malaria. You may need to take prescription medicine before, during, and after your trip to prevent malaria, depending on your travel plans, such as where you are going, when you are traveling, and if you are spending a lot of time outdoors or sleeping outside. Talk to your doctor about how you can prevent malaria while traveling. For more information on malaria in Thailand, see malaria in Thailand.
Traveling with ChildrenAsk your doctor what the best medicines to prevent malaria in children are.
Extended Stay/Study AbroadIf you will be spending a long time in a malaria risk area, you should take medicine to prevent malaria the entire time you are there.
|Rabies||Although rabies can be found in dogs, bats, and other mammals in Thailand, it is not a major risk to most travelers. CDC recommends this vaccine only for these groups:
|Yellow Fever||There is no risk of yellow fever in Thailand. The government of Thailand requires proof of yellow fever vaccination only if you are arriving from a country with risk of yellow fever. This doesnot include the US. If you are traveling from a country other than the US, check this list to see if you may be required to get the yellow fever vaccine: Countries with risk of yellow fever virus (YFV) transmission.For more information on recommendations and requirements, see yellow fever recommendations and requirements for Thailand. Your doctor can help you decide if this vaccine is right for you based on your travel plans.
Traveling with ChildrenThis vaccine should not be given to children younger than 6 months and only with caution to children aged 6–8 months.
Eat and drink safely
Unclean food and water can cause travelers’ diarrhea and other diseases. Reduce your risk by sticking to safe food and water habits.
- Food that is cooked and served hot
- Hard-cooked eggs
- Fruits and vegetables you have washed in clean water or peeled yourself
- Pasteurized dairy products
- Food served at room temperature
- Food from street vendors
- Raw or soft-cooked (runny) eggs
- Raw or undercooked (rare) meat or fish
- Unwashed or unpeeled raw fruits and vegetables
- Unpasteurized dairy products
- ”Bushmeat” (monkeys, bats, or other wild game)
- Bottled water that is sealed
- Water that has been disinfected
- Ice made with bottled or disinfected water
- Carbonated drinks
- Hot coffee or tea
- Pasteurized milk
- Tap or well water
- Ice made with tap or well water
- Drinks made with tap or well water (such as reconstituted juice)
- Unpasteurized milk
Talk with your doctor about taking prescription or over-the-counter drugs with you on your trip in case you get sick.
Traveling with Children
For infants, breastfeeding is the best way to prevent illnesses spread through food and water. For older children, make sure they carefully follow the food and water advice above.
Diarrhea can be dangerous in small children because they become dehydrated quickly. Oral rehydration salts (ORS) packets are commonly available in developing countries. ORS should be used to prevent dehydration in children with diarrhea.
Watch for symptoms of severe dehydration (fast pulse, deep breathing, sunken eyes, crying without tears, weight loss of 10% or more), and seek medical attention immediately if these develop.
Visiting Friends or Family
People who are visiting friends and family are at high risk for illnesses spread by food and water, such as typhoid, hepatitis A, and cholera. It is important to get travel vaccines and carefully follow the food and water advice above.
Prevent bug bites
Bugs (like mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas) can spread a number of diseases in Thailand. Many of these diseases cannot be prevented with a vaccine or medicine. You can reduce your risk by taking steps to prevent bug bites.
What can I do to prevent bug bites?
- Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts, long pants, and hats.
- Use an appropriate insect repellent (see below).
- Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (such as boots, pants, socks, and tents). Donot use permethrin directly on skin.
- Stay and sleep in air-conditioned or screened rooms.
- Use a bed net if the area where you are sleeping is exposed to the outdoors.
What type of insect repellent should I use?
- FOR PROTECTION AGAINST TICKS AND MOSQUITOES: Use a repellent that contains 20% or more DEET for protection that lasts up to several hours.
- FOR PROTECTION AGAINST MOSQUITOES ONLY: Products with one of the following active ingredients can also help prevent mosquito bites. Higher percentages of active ingredient provide longer protection.
- Picaridin (also known as KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and icaridin)
- Oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or PMD
- Always use insect repellent as directed.
What should I do if I am bitten by bugs?
- Avoid scratching bug bites, and apply hydrocortisone cream or calamine lotion to reduce the itching.
- Check your entire body for ticks after outdoor activity. Be sure to remove ticks properly.
What can I do to avoid bed bugs?
Although bed bugs do not carry disease, they are an annoyance. See our information page about avoiding bug bites for some easy tips to avoid them. For more information on bed bugs, see Bed Bugs..
Some diseases in Thailand—such as dengue and filariasis—are spread by bugs and cannot be prevented with a vaccine. Follow the insect avoidance measures described above to prevent these and other illnesses.
Traveling with Children
Is it safe to use insect repellent on my children?
Most insect repellent is safe to use on your children. However, products containing OLE should not be used on children less than 3 years old.
Children over 2 months old can use products containing DEET, up to 30% concentration.
Protect infants less than 2 months of age by using a carrier draped with mosquito netting with an elastic edge for a tight fit.
How should I use insect repellent on my children?
- Children should not handle insect repellent. Instead, adults should apply it to their own hands first, then gently spread on the child’s exposed skin.
- Do not apply insect repellent to children’s hands, because they tend to put their hands in their mouths.
- Keep insect repellent out of reach of children.