Diarrhea when Traveling

Source is the CDC

Travelers’ Diarrhea

person sitting on toilet

Travelers’ diarrhea is the most common travel-related illness. It can occur anywhere, but the highest-risk destinations are in most of Asia (except for Japan) as well as the Middle East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America.


In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious or life-threatening, but it can certainly make for an unpleasant trip. Take steps to avoid diarrhea when you travel.

Eat & Drink Safely

Choose foods and beverages carefully to lower your risk of diarrhea (see Food & Water Safety). Eat only food that is cooked and served hot. (Avoid, for example, food that has been sitting on a buffet.) Eat raw fruits and vegetables only if you have washed them in clean water or peeled them. Drink only beverages from factory-sealed containers, and avoid ice (because it may have been made from unclean water).

Keep Your Hands Clean

Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after using the bathroom and before eating. If soap and water aren’t available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. In general, it’s a good idea to keep your hands away from your mouth.


Fluid Replacement

If you get diarrhea, drink lots of fluids to stay hydrated. This is especially important for young children or adults with chronic illnesses. In serious cases of travelers’ diarrhea, oral rehydration solution—available online or in pharmacies in developing countries—can be used for fluid replacement.


Many travelers carry antibiotics with them so they can treat diarrhea early if they start to get sick. The choice of antibiotics varies depending on the destination. Ask your doctor if you should take an antibiotic on your trip.

Over-the-Counter Drugs

Several drugs, such as Lomotil or Imodium, can be bought over-the-counter to treat the symptoms of diarrhea. These drugs decrease the frequency and urgency of needing to use the bathroom, and they may make it easier for you to ride on a bus or airplane while waiting for an antibiotic to take effect.

washing hands

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Doctors in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia know it as a stubborn, potentially deadly infection that causes pneumonia, abscesses and, in the most severe cases, organ failure. Without treatment it can kill within 48 hours. Military officials worry it could be converted into an agent of terror. from NPR News

I was reading my mornings news and ran across this. I live in Thailand for number of years and have never heard of Melioidosis. We cover health issues in SE Asia so decided to  research.  Commonly called Whitmore’s  Disease.  In northeast Thailand, there are around 2,000 culture-confirmed melioidosis cases per year, with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 40%!!!!!!!

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Study: A third of big groundwater basins in distress

By Alan Buis, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory,

and Janet Wilson, University of California, Irvine

Screen Shot 2015-07-14 at 12.12.16 PM

Groundwater storage trends for Earth’s 37 largest aquifers from UCI-led study using NASA GRACE data (2003 – 2013). Of these, 21 have exceeded sustainability tipping points and are being depleted, with 13 considered significantly distressed, threatening regional water security and resilience. Credit: UC Irvine/NASA/JPL-Caltech. View larger image.


Groundwater storage trends for Earth’s 37 largest aquifers from UCI-led study using NASA GRACE data (2003 – 2013). Of these, 21 have exceeded sustainability tipping points and are being depleted, with 13 considered significantly distressed, threatening regional water security and resilience. Credit: UC Irvine/NASA/JPL-Caltech. View larger image.

About one third of Earth’s largest groundwater basins are being rapidly depleted by human consumption, despite having little accurate data about how much water remains in them, according to two new studies led by the University of California, Irvine (UCI), using data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites.

This means that significant segments of Earth’s population are consuming groundwater quickly without knowing when it might run out, the researchers conclude. The findings are published today in Water Resources Research.

“Available physical and chemical measurements are simply insufficient,” said UCI professor and principal investigator Jay Famiglietti, who is also the senior water scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “Given how quickly we are consuming the world’s groundwater reserves, we need a coordinated global effort to determine how much is left.”

The studies are the first to comprehensively characterize global groundwater losses with data from space, using readings generated by NASA’s twin GRACE satellites. GRACE measures dips and bumps in Earth’s gravity, which are affected by the mass of water. In the first paper, researchers found that 13 of the planet’s 37 largest aquifers studied between 2003 and 2013 were being depleted while receiving little to no recharge.

The most overburdened aquifers are in the world’s driest areas, where populations draw heavily on underground water. Climate change and population growth are expected to intensify the problem.

Eight were classified as “overstressed,” with nearly no natural replenishment to offset usage. Another five were found to be “extremely” or “highly” stressed, depending upon the level of replenishment in each. Those aquifers were still being depleted but had some water flowing back into them.

The most overburdened aquifers are in the world’s driest areas, where populations draw heavily on underground water. Climate change and population growth are expected to intensify the problem.

“What happens when a highly stressed aquifer is located in a region with socioeconomic or political tensions that can’t supplement declining water supplies fast enough?” asked Alexandra Richey, the lead author on both studies, who conducted the research as a UCI doctoral student. “We’re trying to raise red flags now to pinpoint where active management today could protect future lives and livelihoods.”

The research team—which included co-authors from NASA, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Taiwan University and UC Santa Barbara—found that the Arabian Aquifer System, an important water source for more than 60 million people, is the most overstressed in the world.

The Indus Basin aquifer of northwestern India and Pakistan is the second-most overstressed, and the Murzuk-Djado Basin in northern Africa is third. California’s Central Valley, used heavily for agriculture and suffering rapid depletion, was slightly better off, but was still labeled highly stressed in the first study.

“As we’re seeing in California right now, we rely much more heavily on groundwater during drought,” said Famiglietti. “When examining the sustainability of a region’s water resources, we absolutely must account for that dependence.”

In a companion paper published today in the same journal, the scientists conclude that the total remaining volume of the world’s usable groundwater is poorly known, with estimates that often vary widely. The total groundwater volume is likely far less than rudimentary estimates made decades ago. By comparing their satellite-derived groundwater loss rates to what little data exist on groundwater availability, the researchers found major discrepancies in projected “time to depletion.” In the overstressed Northwest Sahara Aquifer System, for example, time to depletion estimates varied between 10 years and 21,000 years.

“We don’t actually know how much is stored in each of these aquifers. Estimates of remaining storage might vary from decades to millennia,” said Richey. “In a water-scarce society, we can no longer tolerate this level of uncertainty, especially since groundwater is disappearing so rapidly.”

The study notes that the dearth of groundwater is already leading to significant ecological damage, including depleted rivers, declining water quality and subsiding land.

Groundwater aquifers are typically located in soils or deeper rock layers beneath Earth’s surface. The depth and thickness of many large aquifers make it tough and costly to drill or otherwise reach bedrock and understand where the moisture bottoms out. But it has to be done, the authors say.

To read the technical papers, visit here and here.

GRACE is a joint mission with the German Aerospace Center and the German Research Center for Geosciences, in partnership with the University of Texas at Austin. JPL developed the GRACE spacecraft and manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

Learn more about GRACE here and here.

via Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet: Study: A third of big groundwater basins in distress.

Tap-water lost near Bangkok

Pratch Rujivanarom,
Pakawan Rojanasingsawad
The Nation July 13, 2015 1:00 am

Many residents in Pathum Thani, Lop Buri and Saraburi have lost water because of the severe drought

MORE THAN 250,000 households in provinces adjacent to Bangkok have lost access to tap-water as the severe drought has disrupted waterworks in urban areas.
Screen Shot 2015-07-13 at 12.59.47 PMResidents in Pathum Thani, Saraburi, Ayutthaya and Lop Buri have all been hit.Raphipat Canal, which usually supplies raw water for tap-water production in Pathum Thani’s Thanyaburi district, is one of the water sources that has run dry.The Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA)’s Rangsit Office in Pathum Thani has announced that due to the water shortage, the PWA office in Thanyaburi can no longer produce tap-water.

The PWA has been trying to help residents in Thanyaburi by channelling some water from the PWA’s Rangsit office.

But with a limited supply of water to share, residents of both Thanayaburi and Rangsit have said that water barely comes out of their taps. And at some hours of the day, water does not come out at all.

Nong Sua, Thanyaburi and Lam Luk Ka districts in Pathum Thani province are now declared areas hit by water shortage.

“More than 50,000 households now have no running tap-water at their disposal,” Pathum Thani governor Pongsathorn Sajjacholaphan said yesterday.

In Lop Buri and nearby provinces, more than 200,000 households have had no piped water because sources of have all been exhausted.

“Lop Buri is now the hardest hit. About 100,000 people in this province are now struggling with disrupted tap-water services,” a local official said.

Disaster Prevention and Mitigation chief Chatchai Promlert said he has been in the process of asking the Royal Irrigation Department to help increase the volume of water from the Chao Phraya River to the Chai Nat – Pasak Canal.

“At this point, the water volume is only about five to six cubic metres of water per second. But we need water volume of at least 10 cubic metres to ensure the canal can continue to feed tap-water services,” he said.

Chatchai has also asked the governors of Nakhon Sawan and Chai Nat provinces to stop farmers pumping water from the canal into their paddy fields.

‘Farmers will cooperate’

“Farmers have agreed to co-operate. They have understood the plight of Lop Buri people who lack water for their daily life,” he said.

Local irrigation officials had also installed pumps along the canal to help speed the flow of water to a tap-water facility, he added.

Many tributaries of the Chao Phraya, including Bang Kham River and Chai Nat – Pasak Canal, which are the main water source for tap-water production for Lop Buri’s Ban Mi district, Saraburi’s Phra Buddhabhat district and Tha Rua district in Ayutthaya, have dried up.

In order to tackle the tap-water shortage, PWA Rangsit office has asked the people in affected areas to save water in containers and said it is working with the Irrigation Department to distribute more water to generate tap-water.

The Pathum Thani governor Pongsathon said he is coordinating with Subdistrict Administrative Organisations in Nong Sua, Thanyaburi and Lam Luk ka districts to distribute water to affected households by fire trucks.

These areas have faced the most severe drought in decades.

Previously, farmers have seen their crops destroyed by the water shortage. But the situation has got worse and now affects domestic water usage in the area.

The almost totally dry Klong Raphipat Canal has also caused a canal-side road to collapse because of the sharp drop in the water level underground.

The severe drought also lead to fear that the capital will also be hit by the lack of tap-water. Governor of the Metropolitan Waterworks Authority Thanasak Watanathana has warned previously that supplies for tap-water in Bangkok may run out within 30 days if there is no rain by August.

can read more about water shortage here

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